Friday, July 13, 2007

Tablets For Toothache

Hepatitis C Hepatitis A Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

The virus' Hepatitis B (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to the family of Hepadnaviridae. Are known at present six genotypes (AF) with a different geographical distribution.

SYMPTOMS: L ' acute hepatitis B in most cases is asintomatica.In those in whom the disease occurs, the onset is insidious with vague abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting and jaundice often comes, sometimes accompanied by mild fever. However, only 30-50% of acute infections in adults and 10% in children leads jaundice. The fatality rate is about 1%, but the percentage increases in people older than 40 years.

In adults the disease can become chronic in 5-10% of cases. The risk of chronic increases with decreasing age at which the infection is contracted, so that in infants infected shortly dopo la nascita si verifica circa 9 volte su 10.
Nel 20% dei casi l’epatite cronica può progredire in cirrosi epatica nell’arco di circa 5 anni. Il cancro al fegato (epatocarcinoma) è un’altra complicanza frequente dell’epatite cronica, soprattutto nei pazienti con cirrosi. L’infezione da HBV nei paesi ad elevata endemia è responsabile fino al 90% dei carcinomi del fegato.
Si stima che più della metà della popolazione mondiale sia stata infettata dal virus dell’ Epatite B e che siano circa 350 milioni i soggetti con infezione cronica. Ogni anno si stima che in tutto il globo si verifichino più di 50 milioni di nuove HBV infection and that about one million people die from HBV infection. In highly endemic regions such as East Asia, Africa and the Amazon subshariana, the percentage of chronic carriers ranges from 10 to 25% in countries with low endemicity such as North America and Western Europe this figure is less than 2%.

How do you get: The source of infection of ' Hepatitis B is represented by patients with acute or chronic infection by porters, who have the virus in the blood but also in various body fluids: saliva, bile, nasal secretions, breast milk, semen, vaginal mucus, etc. ..
transmission, through the blood is therefore injecting, apparent or not apparent, sexually or by vertically from mother to child. The apparent that injecting is accomplished through blood transfusions or blood products contaminated with the virus, or cut / puncture with needles / instruments infected. The injecting apparently occurs when the virus enters the body through small skin lesions or mucous membranes (brushes, scissors, combs, razors, brushes, towels contaminated with infected blood, etc.).
With regard to the risk of contagion ' transfusion hepatitis B, still exists in developing countries, and is practically zero in industrialized countries. In fact, the monitoring of blood donation must be added the following processes that destroy the virus.
At the risk of contracting the ' hepatitis B so they are drug addicts, homosexuals, health care personnel in contact with infected people or working on the agent of infection, but also the family and sexual contacts with infected people and all those practice that involves contact with non-sterile needles and syringes, such as tattoos, piercing, manicures, pedicures, etc. .. The virus resists outdoor up to 7 days, so the infection is also possible to contact with contaminated objects. The incubation period varies between 45 and 180 days, but usually stands between 60 and 90 days.

PREVENTION: In terms of prevention, there is a vaccine that has been proven safe and provides long-lasting immunity against 'Hepatitis B . In Italy since 1991, vaccination is mandatory for all newborns and adolescents of 12 years. Vaccination is strongly recommended for the population groups most at risk of infection (drug addicts, living in chronic carriers, medical personnel, male homosexuals, etc...)


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